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2011全国英语考试二级复习资料08
第八课: 饮食文化

一.相关文化背景介绍

(一)关于三明治
三明治是西方的一种基本食品,以两片面包夹几片肉和奶酪、各种调料组成,吃法简单,;历史从13世纪开始。三明治原是英国东南部一个默默无闻的小镇,镇上有位蒙塔古伯爵,他非常好赌,整日废寝忘食的玩桥牌。随从很难服侍他的饮食,干脆将肉、蛋、菜夹杂在面包片中,让他一边赌一边吃。蒙塔古伯爵大喜,顺口便将这种快餐叫做“三明治”。其他赌客也学伯爵的样子,吃这种食品。随后三明治闻名英国,传遍欧洲大陆,从此,夹馅面包片的食品就叫做“三明治”。

(二)关于热狗
热狗,是一种面包夹香肠的快餐。传说热狗的发明者是德国移民安东. 弗奇特万根。1904年,他在圣路易斯开了一家饭铺,出售牛肉、香肠等。为了节省开支,他把手套发给顾客,让大家用手那着香肠吃。但他发现这个方法行不通,常有人吃完饭后就“顺手牵羊”,把手套也带走了。而且洗手套费时有费钱。他最后想出一条妙计:他把香肠夹在一种细长的面包里出售,不但方便,而且好吃。这样很快便博得大众喜爱而畅销各地。由于这种食品外型好似酷暑里伸着舌头的狗,所以人们叫它“热狗”。

二.本课内容讲析

(一)词汇
1 interrupt 打扰;打断
考点:interrupt with 打断;防碍
2 advise 劝告;建议
考点:advise sb of 建议某人…
advise with sb on / about sth 同某人商量某事;就某事请教某人
3 pack 打包
考点:pack up 打好旅行用的行李
4 prevent 阻止;阻挡
考点:prevent from 使… 不做某事,阻止… 做某事
5 light 点燃
考点:light up / upon 偶然发现;偶然碰到
6 pour 倾倒;灌
考点:pour down 倾泻 pour on 泼冷水;使沮丧
7 starve 挨饿;使饿死
考点:starve for =be starved of 渴望;极需;缺乏
starve sb. into 用饥饿迫使…
starve out 用饥饿使投降;使断粮而屈服
8 feed 喂养;饲养
考点:be feed up with 吃的过饱;对… 极其厌倦
feed on 靠… 过日子;从… 中得到满足/ 供养
feed up 供给食物/营养;养肥;使吃饱

(二)短语
1 junk food 垃圾食品
这是两个名词组成的复合词,与junk 有关的复合词还有junk shop 指“旧货店”。
e.g. It’s not wise to eat junk food .
Sometimes you have to eat junk food because of time .
2 as far as 至于,就… 方面说
通常是指后面所接的内容达到了一个最大的限度的程度。
e.g. As far as I know , it’s forbidden to smoke at the meeting .
I helped him as far as I could .
3 pay for 付款;赔偿
付钱给某人作为… 的费用,即 pay (sb ) for sth

e.g. How much did you pay for the car ?
That trader pays me for my goods .
4 blame for 负责;责任;承担;
通常是为做错的事或做的不好的事情而承担责任。
e.g. Who is blamed for this failure ?
Because of your carelessness , you should be blamed for this aftermath .
5 pay attention to 关注;注意
to 是介词,后面接名词、动名词或短语,如“密切关注”是pay close attention to .
e.g. We need to pay close attention to the development of this matter .
Do you pay attention to this notice ?

(三)句型
1 So in order to keep doctors away , we’d better eat more fruit and vegetables .
译文:所以为了把医生赶走,我们最好多吃水果和蔬菜。
讲解:in order to do sth. 指的是“为了做某事”,表示目的,在句子中做目的状语。Had better + do sth. .指“最好做某事”,better 后面必须接动词原形。
e.g. You’d better clean your room at once .
2 It is sad to know that millions of people die every year because they do not have enough food .
译文:;了解到每年有数百万的人由于没有足够的食物死去,这是令人悲哀的。
讲解:millions of 指“数百万”, thousands of 指“数千的”,表示不确定的数量。It’s sad to know that … 指“了解到…是悲哀的”,that 引导的句子充当know 宾语。
e.g. It’s sad to know that her grandmother is dead .

(四)语法知识
复合句
1 复合句包含两个或更多的主谓结构,由一个(或更多的)主谓结构充当句子的某一(些)成分,如主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、同位语等,其中充当一个句子成分的主谓结构是从句。由于在句子中的作用不同,从句又可分为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、定语从句、状语从句和同位语从句等。
e.g. What I want to emphasize is this .
We should never pretend to know what we don’t know .
There is something in what you said .
That’s exactly what I am planning to do .
We are looking forward to the day when we will meet .
Turn off the light before you leave the room .
Soon came the news that Germany had declared war on Russia .

(五) 口试必备用语
邀请朋友吃饭时的常用语:
1 Are you free tomorrow ?
2 Would you like to go out with me for dinner ?
3 I would like to treat you to lunch .
4 Dinner is on me .
5 When is the most convenient time for you ?
6 What is your favorite food ?
主人请客人不要客气时的常用语:
1 Help yourself , please .
2 Make yourself at home .
3 Help yourself to www.pets12345.com .
4 Welcome ,please sit down .
客人在就餐结束时的常用语:
1 I am full .
2 Thank you .I’ve had enough .
3 Thank you for your dinner . I’m afraid I can’t take in any more .