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2011全国英语考试二级复习资料03
住房
1、相关文化背景介绍
⑴ 关于安大略省
安大略省位于加拿大东部,是加拿大的心脏城市。面积为1068580平方公里,人口约1141万人,首府为全国第一大城市多伦多,安大略省是加拿大最富有、最发达的工业省,在全国经济中起支配地位。本省的城市众多,城市化水平在全国最高,有加拿大首都渥太华,汽车城温莎,钢铁城哈密尔顿。安大略省也有著名的旅游景点:多伦多电视塔,尼亚加拉瀑布等。
⑵ 关于美国住房状况
美国的土地资源、人口和经济发展的情况使得美国在住房建设上处于全球的领先地位。90年代初美国人均居住面积就已经超过48平方米。美国住房按揭贷款额也很高可达房价的90%,偿还期比较长。美国住房的实际花费相对于世界其他地方来说仍然是最低的,并且可以负担得起。美国最低收入的居民以租用政府的廉价住房为主,收入居中或较高的居民大多购买中等以上的住房或租用相应的住房。美国人一般直接从市场或经纪人中获得信息,不自行购买住房,通过中介的服务作出购房的安排。

2、 核心词汇讲解:
⑴ afford v. 担负得起(。。。的费用、损失、后果等);抽得出(时间)
例句:I can’t afford three weeks away from work.
译文:我不能3个星期放下工作不干。
⑵ agreeable a. 同意的;宜人的
例句:Are you agreeable to my suggestion?
译文:你同意我的建议吗?
⑶ raise v. 饲养;召集
例句:They raise horses and sheep.
译文:他们饲养马和羊。
⑷ environment n. 环境
例句:The children have a happy environment at school.
译文:孩子们在学校有一个快乐的环境。
⑸ decorate v. 装饰,装潢
例句:The streets were decorated with flags.
译文:各街道都用旗帜装饰起来。
⑹ treasure v. 珍视,珍藏,珍重/ n. 宝藏,金银珠宝
例句1:The library has many art treasures.
译文1:这座图书馆藏有许多艺术珍品。
例句2:She treasured those memories.
译文2:她珍惜那些记忆。
⑺ astonish v. 使惊讶
例句:We were all astonished by the news that he had passed his driving test.
译文:听到他通过了驾驶考试这个消息,我们都感到十分惊讶。
⑻ settle v. 使定居;安排
例句:They got married and settled near Beijing.
译文:他们结婚并在北京附近定居下来。
⑼ differ v. 不同;有异
例句:Our opinions differ greatly from each other in that aspect.
译文:我们在那方面的意见有很大的出入。
⑽ identify v. 认出;鉴定
例句:She was asked to identify the criminal.

译文:她被要求辨认犯罪。

3、 核心短语讲解:
⑴ depend on 取决于;依赖于
后面通常接sb./sth., 意思是依赖于某人/某物,或取决于某人/某物。例如:
My success depends on my friend’s support.
Whether we go to school or not depends on the weather.
⑵ consist of 由。。。构成,由。。。组成
后面可以接sth.,意思是由某事物组成或构成。但一般不用于进行时态。例如:
This club consists of 50 members.
The book consists of five chapters.
⑶ get round to 抽出时间做某事
后面接sth. Or doing sth. ,同义词组为 get around to sth./ doing sth. 。例如:
Can you get round to reading this novel?
I hope I will get round to go shopping with you next week.
⑷ proud of 自豪的,荣耀的
后面可接人或者物,意思是‘为。。。感到自豪’。例如:
She is proud of her new house.
Are they proud of their success?
⑸ on the other hand 另一方面通常与 on the one hand 连用,表示事物的两个方面或两种情况。例如:
This book, on the other hand, provides very good ideas.
On the one hand, he feel lonely, on the other hand, he makes many friends.

4、 核心句型讲解:
⑴ A stairway led to the second floor, which in small homes was an undivided sleeping room and in larger homes was divided into small bedrooms.
讲解:which 后面是由and 连接的两个分句,在这里which引导的非限制性定语从句,说明the second floor 在不同房间里的不同存在方式。例如:
I like this new car, which was bought three days ago.
⑵ The roof was specially designed to create as much living space as possible on the second floor.
讲解:design 指‘设计’,后面接不定式 to create , 表示设计成什么样式。as much… as possible 指‘尽可能地多。。。’。例如:
I clean my storeroom in order to create as much room as possible.
⑶ Since a house was impossible for one person to build, several people would work together to build it.
讲解:常用句型 It is impossible for sb. to do sth. , 是指‘某人做某事不可能的’。 Since 的常用意思是‘自从,自。。。以来’,在这个句子里是指‘由于,因为’,引导的是一个原因状语从句。例如:
Since she is very young, she can’t understand what happened.

5、 重点语法知识讲解:
被动结构和带表语的结构的区别
‘动词be+过去分词’这个结构并不一定都是被动结构,有时它可能是be +表语。这两种结构的主要区别是:被动结构表示一个动作,带表语的结构表示主要的特点或所处的状态。例如:
The enemy was soon surrounded by us. (被动结构)
The house is surrounded by trees. (表语结构)
Our plan has been upset. (被动结构)
She was terribly upset. (表语结构)
特别说明:这一区分可以帮助我们决定用什么时态,如果是被动结构,它的时态一般要与相应的主动结构相一致;如果是表语结构,多用一般时态。例如:‘玻璃杯坏了’表示的是状态,因此可译为‘The glass is broken’, 这时用的是一般现在时。如果说‘杯子是妹妹打破的’,表示的是一个动作,这时就不能用一般现在时,因为相应的主动结构不可能用一般现在时。当然,带表语的结构用其他时态的情况也是有的,例如:How long has she been here? 这时表示的是一个延续到现在的状态。