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09PETS四级名师讲义:从句的用法
(一) 宾语从句
1. 用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。引导宾语的关联词有that,who,whom,whether,if,when,where,why及what等。如:
I understand that it's not your fault. 我知道那不是你的错。(关联词是that)
I am sorry that you are ill. 你病了,我很难过。(关联词是that)
以上几个句子中的关联词that都可以省略,在有些句子中,关联词that是不能省略的。如:
That he never said such a thing I don't believe. 我相信他曾说过这样的话。(宾语从句置于句首时,that不能省略)
We decided, in view of special circumstances, that we would admit him for a probationary period. 鉴于他的特殊情况,我们决定给他一段试用期。(谓语动词decide与that从句之间有插入语,所以that不能省略)
2. whether 和if 引导宾语从句时, 有时是通用的,有时却只能用whether,不能用if 。如:
He didn't say whether or not he will be staying here.他没有说他是否将在此停留。(if不能与or not连用)
There is some doubt as to whether the document is genuine.这项文件是否真实是有些疑问的。(if 不能用在as to 之后)
3. 宾语从句除了可以在句子中充当宾语之外,还可以用作介词的宾语。如:
I had no idea about who should be granted the award.我不知道该把奖励授予谁。

(二) make的用法
make 的用法很多,在阅读过程中要根据上下文灵活翻译。如:
make money 赚钱 make progress 取得进步 make peace讲和 make the bed 整理床铺 make trouble找麻烦,捣乱

(三) need的用法
need有两种主要的用法:
1. needn't +have+动词过去分词:表示本来不必做而实际已经做的行为,相当于don't need to do。如:
You needn't have worried about her study.你不必为她的学习担心。
2. need to be done = need doing表被动。如:The room needs to be painted. = The room needs painting.这间屋子需要粉刷。

(四) as 的用法
as 这个词看似简单,但是用法很多,也很灵活,在文章中经常出现。如果不能正确理解,将会影响到内容的理解。
1. as 作介词本文来源:考试大网
as作介词时表示“像......”;“以......身份”;“作为.......”;“当作......”。如:
He worked as a slave.他以www.pets12345.com作。(他是奴隶)
2. as作副词
表示程度或数量上的相同,或者差不多。如:
I run as fast as he does.我和他跑的一样快。
3. as作关系代词
as作关系代词不仅可以代替一个名词,而且可以代替一个句子或者一件事情。如:
As is described in this article, the children in that country lead a miserable life.那个国家的孩子过着悲www.pets12345.com点在文章中已经描述过了。
4. as作连词
as 作连词用法很多,可以表示时间、原因、让步或比较。如:
She won't come, as we didn't invite her. 她不会来的,因为我们没有邀请她。
Much as I like butter, I www.pets12345.com at a time. 尽管我喜欢奶油,但我从来都不一次吃很多。