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2014PETS阅读:融合创新互联亚太09
附件四

亚太经合组织互联互通蓝图(2015-2025)

Annex D

APEC Connectivity Blueprint for 2015-2025

背景

Background

在2013年亚太经合组织领导人宣言中,我们提出硬件、软件和人员交往互联互通三大支柱,实现亚太无缝、全方位互联互通和一体化的目标。

In the APEC Leaders' 2013 Declaration, we shared our aspiration to reach a seamlessly and comprehensively connected and integrated Asia-Pacific through the pillars of Physical Connectivity, Institutional Connectivity and People-to-People Connectivity.

实现互联互通对于亚太经合组织这样多样化的地区组织是极具挑战的目标,但正是这样的目标将激励我们取得切实、有力的成就。

Connectivity represents an ambitious target for a diverse regional organization such as APEC, but it is precisely that ambition that will drive strong and tangible achievement.

互联互通不仅对政府和工商界具有重要意义,对亚太经合组织大家庭也至关重要。实现亚太经合组织发达经济体和新兴增长中心之间的连接,将提升区域经济增长质量,促进亚太经济繁荣和韧性。

Connectivity will be important not only for governments and business, but also for APEC as a community. By connecting APEC's developed and emerging growth centers, the region's quality of growth will improve, contributing to the Asia-Pacific's economic prosperity and resilience.

我们赞赏亚太经合组织各下属机构和工作组推进区域互联互通的努力和成就。各经济体在自身和区域层面也为此开展了大量实质工作。

In this regard, we note with appreciation that significant work has already been done by various APEC fora and working groups in advancing connectivity in the region. APEC economies have also undertaken substantial amounts of work to improve connectivity, both at the domestic and regional levels.

近年,亚太经合组织虽然在促进互联互通方面取得很多进展和成就,但挑战犹存。


However, despite the many achievements and successes of APEC in promoting connectivity in previous years, many challenges still remain.

硬件联通方面,域内基础设施及信息通讯技术设施的普及和质量仍不均衡。

On physical connectivity, there is still a disparity in access to and quality of physical and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure throughout the region.

软件联通方面,由于各种管理限制或能力差距,现有规制在促进互联互通方面仍有很大不足。

On institutional connectivity, there is also a significant gap in the ability of existing institutions to promote connectivity due to various regulatory constraints or lack of capacity.

人员交往互联互通方面,需要减少人员交往和流动障碍,为促进人员顺畅流动而共同努力。

On people-to-people connectivity, much work needs to be done to ease existing barriers to interaction and mobility, and to develop joint endeavors that will support seamless flows of people.

基于上述,我们制定这份蓝图,为当前和未来实施合作倡议提供战略指导和高级别合作框架,指引亚太经合组织各机制工作并形成合力,使亚太地区联系更加紧密。

We have therefore developed this Blueprint as a strategic guide for current and future initiatives that will bring the APEC region closer together, and as a high-level framework towards which many APEC work streams will focus their efforts.

2025年亚太经合组织互联互通愿景

The Vision of APEC Connectivity in 2025

我们决心在2025年前完成各方共同确立的倡议和指标,加强硬件、软件和人员交往互联互通,实现无缝、全面联接和融合亚太的远景目标。

Through the Blueprint, we commit to strengthen physical, institutional, and people-to-people connectivity by taking agreed actions and meeting agreed targets by 2025, with the objective of achieving a seamless and comprehensively connected and integrated Asia Pacific.

为实现上述远景目标,亚太经合组织成员将在硬件、软件和人员交往互联互通三大领域采取切实行动。

In order to attain this overarching goal, APEC member economies will undertake specific tangible actions at the physical, institutional, and people-to-people pillar levels.

此蓝图包含业已提出的互联互通合作倡议,鼓励激活原有倡议,欢迎提出未来合作新倡议,促进商品、服务、资金和人员更为有效的流动,推动亚太经合组织合作取得新成就。蓝图视野广阔,并将适应亚太不断变化的形势。

This Blueprint contains existing connectivity-related initiatives; encourages reviving those initiatives that require further progress; and, proposes future initiatives for more efficient flows of goods, services, capital and people to drive APEC progress. It is also broad in scope and adaptable to the ever-changing conditions in the Asia-Pacific.

我们期待蓝图为平衡、稳定、可持续和包容增长提供动力和支持,联接本地区各增长极,并使亚太大家庭联系更为紧密。

We envision this Blueprint accelerating and encouraging balanced, secure, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as connecting growth poles in the region and bringing APEC closer together as a community.

硬件联通

Physical Connectivity

硬件联通涉及很多跨领域问题,我们将重点改善投资环境,通过公私伙伴合作关系及其他渠道加强亚太经合组织经济体基础设施融资。在评估基础设施项目建议时,采用包含关键质量要素的综合评估方式。在规划和实施基础设施项目时,加强运用良好实践,倡导以人为本的投资。

Under Physical Connectivity, with regard to cross-sectoral issues, we will focus on improving the investment climate, enhancing infrastructure financing through public private partnerships (PPP) and other means in APEC economies; adopting comprehensive assessment methods that considers key quality elements in evaluation of infrastructure project proposals; and, enhancing the application of good practices and people-centered investment for planning and implementing infrastructure projects.

我们欢迎财长会机制在基础设施公私伙伴合作关系领域为促进知识共享和能力建设所做的实质性工作。

We welcome the substantial work that has been done under the Finance Ministers' Process (FMP) to promote knowledge sharing and capacity building in the area of infrastructure PPPs.

我们高兴地注意到,在财长会机制指导下,亚太经合组织公私伙伴合作关系专家咨询小组已开始工作,并为印尼公私伙伴合作关系示范中心提供自愿协助。我们赞赏该小组协助亚太经合组织经济体,推广公私伙伴合作关系,为基础设施建设提供私人融资,发挥技术库功能,在本地区推广良好实践,并为有需要的发展中经济体提供技术援助。

We are pleased to note that the APEC PPP Experts Advisory Panel has launched work under the FMP, which supports, on a voluntary basis, a Pilot PPP Center based in Indonesia. We note with appreciation the role of the Panel in helping APEC economies tap into private sector sources of funding for infrastructure development, particularly through promoting PPPs, by acting as a repository of skills that will bring to life good practices in the APEC region and that will help channel technical assistance to developing economies seeking such assistance.

我们承诺在亚太经合组织经济体建立更多公私伙伴合作关系中心,组建公私伙伴合作关系中心区域网络,分享良好实践。从长远看,这些中心将为建立亚太经合组织范围内基础设施融资市场发挥重要支持作用。我们欢迎《亚太经合组织基础设施公私伙伴合作关系项目实施路线图》和《通过公私伙伴合作关系促进基础设施投资行动计划》。

We commit to further establish dedicated PPP centers in APEC economies, with a view to developing a regional network of PPP centers to share good practices. In the longer term, these centers can play an important role in supporting the establishment of an APEC-wide market for infrastructure financing. We also welcome the Implementation Roadmap to Develop Successful Infrastructure PPP Projects in the APEC Region and the Action Agenda on Promoting Infrastructure Investment through PPP.

我们将建设、维护和更新高质量的基础设施,包括能源、信息通信技术及交通运输基础设施。寻求提高亚太经合组织运输网络的质量和可持续性,进一步普及宽带网络,促进可持续能源安全,加强能源基础设施的韧性。

We will develop, maintain and renew quality infrastructure, including energy, ICT and transport infrastructure and seek to increase the quality and sustainability of APEC transport networks; increase broadband internet access; promote sustainable energy security; and build resiliency into the energy infrastructure.

海上基础设施建设多为单边开发项目,我们将促进海上交通运输的高效和有效运作。我们注意到已有一些“探路者”合作倡议,期待未来合作收到实效。

We will help facilitate the efficient and effective operation of maritime transportation and shipments, especially considering that a majority of maritime infrastructure development projects happen on a unilateral basis. We take note of several pathfinder initiatives where future cooperation could produce tangible results.

我们将加强航空运输合作,增强贸易与人员交往联通,并通过分享成功经验和良好实践提高航空互联互通的效率和安全性。

We will strengthen air transportation cooperation to boost robust trade and people-to-people connections, share experiences and good practices to promote efficiency and security of air connectivity.

我们注意到,自1989年成立起,信息通信技术发展一直是亚太经合组织工作重点之一。加强信息共享,改善通讯技术,将使亚太人民之间、机构之间联系更加快捷和可靠,促进贸易和经济增长。我们决心继续共同努力,利用现有技术缩小数字鸿沟,加强区域互联互通,促进使用信息通讯技术资源。

We note that ICT development has been a focus of APEC's work since its inception in 1989, as increased information sharing and improved communication technology allow for faster and reliable connections between people and organizations throughout the Asia-Pacific, facilitating trade and economic growth. We resolve to continue our efforts jointly in enhancing the access to ICT resources by using available technologies to reduce digital divide and increase greater connectivity in the region.

我们决心挖掘亚太经合组织在发起未来能源合作倡议方面的巨大潜力,特别是在能源贸易和环境可持续性领域。亚太经合组织以非约束性方式探讨拓展跨境能源贸易和可再生能源等理念。我们将进一步努力,确保所有经济体享有高品质电力供应。

We resolve to tap into APEC's considerable potential in fostering future energy cooperation initiatives, especially in the areas of energy-related trade and environmental sustainability. APEC represents an ideal forum to explore this concept of expanded cross-border energy trade and renewable energy in a non-binding manner. We will further aspire to ensure quality electricity supply for all member economies.

软件联通

Institutional Connectivity

在软件联通领域,我们将采取共同行动,解决贸易便利化、结构和规制改革、交通及物流便利化等领域的重大问题。

Under Institutional Connectivity, we will strive to make progress in jointly addressing issues of trade facilitation, structural and regulatory reforms as well as transport and logistics facilitation, which are of critical importance to APEC as a regional forum.

我们致力于实现海关和边境管理机构现代化,推进政府整体框架下的规制建设,包括加强监管、标准制定和贸易主管机构之间的协调沟通。

We aim to modernize customs and border agencies and enable a whole-of-government approach in the development of regulations, including coordination across regulatory, standards, and trade agencies.

我们支持亚太经合组织在各经济体2020年建立“单一窗口”系统。我们鼓励促进各“单一窗口”系统的相互适用和无纸化贸易。

We support APEC's work to encourage each member economy to develop its own Single Window system by 2020 and we encourage efforts to promote international interoperability between Single Window systems and paperless trading.

我们将进一步推动《亚太经合组织供应链联通框架行动计划》中提出的各项倡议,通过实施能力建设计划,帮助经济体克服《行动计划》所提的8个阻塞点,系统提高供应链绩效。

We will further strengthen the initiatives under the APEC Supply-Chain Connectivity Framework Action Plan (SCFAP) by systematically improving supply chain performance through implementing a capacity building plan to assist economies in overcoming specific obstacles within the eight chokepoints of the SCFAP.

在规制衔接领域,我们将通过分享最佳实践和规制案例,实施规制合作有关倡议。我们注意到产业对话机制已在这一进程中取得显著进展。互联网是各经济体实施良好规制实践的有效工具(如保障内部规制工作协调,评估法规制度影响,以及开展公共咨询等)。各经济体将进一步探索利用互联网手段,开展良好规制实践,包括互联网时代规制公共咨询的倡议。

On regulatory coherence, we will implement initiatives that focus on regulatory cooperation through the sharing of best practices on regulatory issues. We note that industry dialogues are already well advanced in this process. The internet is a good and effective tool to help economies strengthen their implementation of good regulatory practices (e.g. ensuring internal coordination of regulatory work, assessing the impact of regulations, and conducting public consultations). Economies will further explore using internet-based tools to strengthen the implementation of good regulatory practices, including through the initiative on new actions APEC economies could take to strengthen the conduct of public consultations on proposed regulations in the Internet era.

在经济结构改革领域,“亚太经合组织商业便利化多年期项目”为各经济体开展因地制宜能力建设提供便利,帮助实现运营成本、速度、难度等商业便利化指标改善25%的意向性目标。为实现上述目标,我们致力于推动自身政策与现有国际条约一致化,并同意考虑将商业便利化工作延续至2020年。

Under structural reform, the APEC Ease of Doing Business (EoDB) Multi-Year Project (MYP) facilitates tailored capacity building activities to support economies in achieving the aspirational target of making it 25% cheaper, faster, and easier to do business. We aim to achieve these goals by harmonizing local policies with existing international agreements, and agree to consider the continuation of our work on the EoDB until 2020.

我们承诺在亚太培育透明、可靠、公平竞争和运作良好的市场,包括电子商务领域。我们致力于在2025年前扩展安全可靠的信息通信技术和商务环境。

We commit to fostering transparency, safety, competition and better functioning markets, including e-commerce, in the Asia Pacific and aim to expand the application of secure and trusted ICT and e-commerce environment by 2025.

亚太经合组织需要制定应对“中等收入陷阱”的战略。提高竞争力和生产力水平,完善监管体系,促进商业便利化等,将有助于部分解决“中等收入陷阱”问题。

APEC needs to build a strategy to tackle the policy challenges raised by the Middle-Income Trap (MIT). Improving an economy's competitiveness, productivity levels and its regulatory environment for the ease of doing business can contribute to overcoming some of the issues that underpin the MIT.

人员交往互联互通

People-to-people Connectivity

在此方面,我们致力于便利人员跨境流动和创新理念交流。在这一支柱下将讨论商务旅行、跨境教育、旅游便利化和专业技术人才流动等问题。

Under People-to-People Connectivity, we will strive to facilitate the movement of people across borders, and to facilitate the exchange of innovative ideas. As such, issues of business travel mobility, cross-border education, tourism facilitation, and skilled labor mobility will be addressed under this pillar.

我们承诺继续扩大亚太经合组织商务旅行卡持有者数量,提高旅行卡效用和效率。

We commit to continue expanding the number of holders of the APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of ABTC scheme.

我们承诺推进跨境教育合作,认识到学生、研究人员、教育提供者的流动有助于加强区域联系,促进人文交流,并通过知识和技能的传播推动经济发展。我们决定在2020年前实现亚太经合组织范围内跨境学生交流每年100万人的目标,并增加赴发展中经济体留学的学生数量。

We undertake to improve cross-border education (CBE) cooperation, in recognition that student, academic and provider mobility helps to strengthen regional ties, facilitate people-to-people exchanges and promote economic development through knowledge and skills transfer. We resolve to achieve one million intra-APEC student exchanges per year by 2020, and to increase the number of student exchanges to developing economies.

旅游业是亚太经合组织经济增长战略的重要组成部分,亚太经合组织域内已实施了众多旅游便利化倡议。我们欢迎部分经济体放宽游客签证限制以及简化通关程序的内部举措。

Tourism is an important part of APEC economic growth strategies, and this is reflected in the many tourism facilitation and promotion initiatives that have been implemented within the APEC region. In this regard, we welcome domestic efforts by several economies to implement measures to ease visa restrictions for tourists as well as initiate programs to facilitate immigration processing.

我们将努力在2025年前实现亚太经合组织地区接待游客人数达到8亿人次的目标。为减少游客旅游成本和旅游不稳定因素,我们承诺制定“亚太经合组织区域旅游从业者行为规范”。

We will make efforts to achieve 800 million APEC tourist arrivals by 2025, and commit to establishing an APEC-wide Code of Conduct for Travel Providers in order to reduce travelers' costs and uncertainties relating to tourism.

我们将加强亚太经合组织文化交流活动,力争在2017年前实现每个亚太经合组织经济体在其他经济体每年至少举办一场文化推广活动。

We will intensify cooperation within APEC in promoting cultural exchanges, by aiming to hold at least one cultural awareness event by each APEC economy in every other APEC economy per year by 2017.

我们决定推进跨境科技和创新交流工作。我们赞赏每年一度的“亚太经合组织创新、研究与教育科学奖”。这个奖项授予同其他亚太经合组织经济体科学家开展合作、并展现出卓越科研品质的年轻科学家。

We resolve to advance work on cross-border science, technology, and innovation exchanges. We note with appreciation the annual APEC Science Prize for Innovation, Research and Education (ASPIRE) which recognizes young scientists who have demonstrated cooperation with scientists from other APEC member economies, as well as a commitment to excellence in scientific research.

在专业技术人才流动领域,我们欢迎设立交通和物流行业专业资质认定标准的倡议,更精确评估来自其他亚太经合组织经济体专业技术人才的技能水平。亚太经合组织未来可在目前已有各类双边资质互认协议基础上,增加域内双、多边互认协议数量。职业技能和资质互认对促进专业技术人才流动具有重要作用。为加强政策应对的针对性,有必要收集和分析技能差异和劳动力市场失衡方面及时而准确的信息。

On professional and skilled labor mobility, we welcome initiatives to benchmark qualifications in the transport and logistics industry, allowing businesses within the region to have more certainty over the skill sets of workers from other economies. There are various bilateral Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRAs), and going forward, APEC can undertake work to help expand the number of bilateral and multilateral MRAs in the region. Mutual recognition of skills and credentials can play an important role in facilitating skilled labor mobility. Timely and accurate information on skills gaps and labor market imbalances will also need to be gathered and analyzed to ensure responsive policymaking in this area.

我们承诺通过人力资源开发加强人员交往互联互通,支持《亚太经合组织通过人力资源开发提高就业质量,加强人员交往互联互通工作计划》。

We commit to strengthen people-to-people connectivity through human resources development and welcome the APEC Action Plan for Promoting Quality Employment and Strengthening People-to-People Connectivity through Human Resources Development.

实施战略:能力建设和私营部门合作

Strategies for Implementation: Capacity Building and Private Sector Cooperation

经济技术合作旨在缩小亚太经合组织发达和发展中经济体的差距,是亚太经合组织核心支柱之一。为促进互联互通议程实施,我们将开展提高能力和加强机制建设的经济技术合作,为亚太经合组织经济体提供相关能力建设项目,并坚持经济技术合作的关键目标。因此,经济技术合作是落实蓝图的重要手段。

Economic and technical cooperation (ECOTECH) is one of the key pillars of APEC, focusing on narrowing the gap between developed and developing APEC economies. To help implement the connectivity agenda, we direct ECOTECH activities at upgrading skills and institutions by providing relevant capacity building activities for APEC economies and adhering to key ECOTECH objectives. In this regard, ECOTECH is an important tool for implementing the Blueprint.

提出和实施互联互通合作倡议,需要掌握关于各经济体需求、期待、差距以及市场导向、失衡等方面的大量信息。基础设施需要何类项目、机制框架存在何种不足、劳动力市场缺乏何种人才等信息,对帮助各经济体实现互联互通目标至关重要。

The development and implementation of connectivity initiatives will require a significant amount of information on economies' needs, expectations, gaps, and on market direction and imbalances. Information on what infrastructure projects are needed, what gaps exist in institutional frameworks, and where skills imbalances lay in the labor market will be crucial to support economies in achieving connectivity targets.

各经济体应与私营部门合作搜集有关信息。亚太经合组织工商咨询理事会、政策伙伴关系机制和产业对话机制在这方面可作出重要贡献,提供私营部门关于市场需求、趋势和期待的信息和见解。

To gather this information, economies should work with the private sector. In this regard, the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) and APEC's policy partnerships and industry dialogues can contribute significantly by providing private sector feedback or insight on market needs, trends and expectations.

我们敦促私营部门在亚太经合组织工商咨询理事会协调下,为本地区开展更为市场化的互联互通倡议提供直接支持。除通过公私伙伴合作关系参与基础设施项目外,私营部门还可为能力建设、教育和文化交流等项目提供支持。私营部门也可在互联互通创新方面发挥作用。

We urge the private sector, with coordination from ABAC, to provide direct support for many of the more bankable connectivity initiatives being undertaken in the region. In addition to PPP for infrastructure projects, the private sector could help support capacity building programs as well as educational and cultural exchanges. The private sector could also help in proposing and producing connectivity-enhancing innovations in the region.

其他国际组织在亚太硬件、软件和人文交往互联互通方面已提出倡议并实施项目。这些努力有助于推进蓝图实施。在可能并且合适的情况下,亚太经合组织应寻求与有关国际组织加强协调与合作,避免重复劳动。

International organizations have taken initiatives and launched projects on physical, institutional and people-to-people connectivity in the Asia-Pacific. These efforts could help advance the implementation of this Blueprint, and where possible and appropriate APEC should look to coordinate and collaborate with these organizations to ensure we avoid duplication of efforts.

监督、评估及审议

Monitoring, Evaluation and Review

为完成各方共同确立的2025年倡议和指标,加强硬件、软件和人员交往互联互通,实现无缝、全面联接和融合亚太的远景目标,我们指示部长和高官每年对蓝图落实情况进行监督,特别是审议有关目标和任务的进展情况。

In order to reach the overarching goal of strengthening physical, institutional, and people-to-people connectivity by taking agreed actions and meeting agreed targets by 2025, with the objective of achieving a seamless and comprehensively connected and integrated Asia Pacific, we instruct Ministers and Senior Officials to oversee the implementation of the Blueprint on a yearly basis, particularly in reviewing the targets and objectives.

我们指示部长和高官作出专门安排和规定,对蓝图落实情况进行监督、评估和审议,并在2020年对蓝图进行中期审评。我们指示部长和高官与亚太经合组织各工作机制共同努力,在互联互通三大支柱下提出更多富有雄心的量化合作倡议和目标。这些倡议和目标应具有前瞻性,并服务于2025年亚太经合组织互联互通远景目标。

We direct Ministers and Senior Officials to develop a dedicated arrangement to monitor, review and evaluate the implementation of the Blueprint, and to conduct a mid-term review of the Blueprint in 2020. We further direct Ministers and Senior Officials to work with APEC fora to develop additional ambitious and measurable actions and targets under each of the connectivity pillars. These actions and targets need to be forward-looking and directed towards the vision of APEC Connectivity in 2025.